How do you time and organise the pruning?

Mel Jones asked a very good question about pruning, and I decided to post the answer in the blog. I consulted with Daniel LLose before replying, so that is the explanation for the unusually detailed technical information in this posting!

“How do you time and organise the pruning? Do you start at one side of a site in December and just work across to the other, then on to the next site or go variety by variety, old then new vines, or some other system. Also, is there any plot/variety that you prune later, to postpone budburst, or to make anything else happen or not. I suppose I’m asking for Pichon, but would be interested to hear about Suduiraut as well.”

Pruning at Pichon

Pruning at Château Pichon-Longueville Baron

The purpose of pruning a vine every year is multiple: to regulate the vine vigour, to control the vegetative state and to ensure a perfect sanitary state.

The basic principle of pruning rests on the fact that the fructiferous buds (ie the shoot that will grow from this eye will bear fruits) are positioned on wood from the preceding year. Pruning has therefore the aim of remodeling a vine plant in order to keep a certain length of wood (in one or two canes) on which there will be a clearly defined number of buds (according to the criteria laid down for production volumes). Each bud will give a new branch which will bear one or two fruits according to the grape variety.

The pruning of the vine can only take place once the sap is descending, so that the plant is going into hibernation. In general, we consider that it is possible to prune when the leaves have fallen. It is also easy and more convenient to prune without leaves. The pruning begins here in mid-November and can last throughout the winter. One can prune until the end of March. But at this time, the plant is beginning its activity again, the sap is therefore in rising mode, and they say in the vineyard that “the vine is crying” since the sap can drip from the wood cut during pruning. Some properties organise pruning by teams in order to advance more quickly block by block.

At Pichon for example we practice pruning by “prix-faits”. Each vigneron has the same parcels to prune each year: it is the group of these parcels that is known as a “prix-fait”. The notion of “prix-fait” implies therefore a separation of the vineyard into individual parcels, both in terms of prix-faits and in terms of vignerons. The fact that each vigneron takes care of the same parcels every year is a big qualitative advantage. Each individual vine is thus always pruned by the same person who can from one year to the next direct the development of the vine and better preserve its longevity if he respects the rules of good pruning.

The concept of “prix-fait” indicates also a method of remuneration: the vignerons are paid by the “prix-fait”, that is to say x euros per thousand vines pruned. The prix-fait of a vigneron is carefully made up of a blend of different parcels so that each vigneron has a judicious and balanced mixture between the different grape varieties (at Pichon Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Cabernet Franc) and the differing vigours of the parcels, this vigour being chiefly in relation to the age of the parcel: the older the parcel becomes, the lower will its vigour be.

The pruning method used at Château Pichon-Longueville Baron is the Guyot Double.

The pruning method used at Pichon is the Guyot Double

The pruning method used at Pichon is the Guyot Double

A vigneron can prune between 800 and 1000 vines per day. During a pruning campaign, the vignerons of Pichon have on average 50,000 vines to prune. But the work of pruning itself is not the only work that the vigneron has to do during this period. It is also necessary to prepare the vine so that it is ready for the next vegetative cycle. Pruning in Guyot Double is a method that makes trellising obligatory.

When a vigneron has finished pruning a parcel he must restore to good condition the structure that supports the vine, that is to say the posts and the supporting wires. This work is undertaken before the “pliage” which means tying down the canes. The ‘pliage’ consists of attaching the two canes of a vine plant, to the supporting wire, so that the shoots that sprout from the buds of this cane grow according to the plan of the vegetation). This dimension of the “prix-fait” enables the vigneron to prune all his parcels within the time available.

“Pliage” = tying down of canes. Pichon Baron in the background

“Pliage” = tying down of canes. Pichon Baron in the background

The pruning work is organized in a methodical way. The pruning plan parcel by parcel is made according to the grape varieties but also according to the precociousness of the terroirs. In general the more precocious terroirs are pruned last so that the vine does not start its vegetative cycle too early: this can limit the effects of frost at the beginning of Spring. In fact a late pruning will retard the budburst of the vine (the phase during which the buds begin to open). The young vines (of less than 5/6 years) will always be pruned last as they always tend to start their vegetative cycle earlier than older vines. By pruning them last, one also retards the beginning of the vegetative cycle.

It is not the case at Pichon since the terroirs are such that they represent very few risks of Spring frosts, but there is also a way of diminishing that risk by pruning in two phases. Pruning in guyot double is a “long” pruning method: the canes of wood (called in the Médoc “astes”) have a length of about 50 cm on which will remain at the pruning only 4 or 5 buds. The cane is kept longer in order to enable it to be attached to the supporting wire (the “attachage”). The useless buds at the end of the wood are therefore removed: the cane of wood is debudded on a third of its length.

Debudding

Debudding

To avoid risks of frost in very cold terroirs, the cane is maintained straight without being attached. In this position, the terminal buds will open more quickly and thus delay the opening of the buds at the base of the cane. If there is a spring frost, in this way only the terminal buds will be affected since the buds which are important for the production of grapes will not be sufficiently open. It is then only necessary to prune the vine a second time to remove the terminal buds and to attach the cane to the supporting wire.

In relation to the pruning at Château Suduiraut for example the principles are exactly the same, the important difference being that the pruning method is totally different. The pruning at Pichon is “long” with two canes of wood with 4 or 5 short spurs with two eyes enabling the reshaping of the plant in the following year.

The pruning at Suduiraut in particular and in Sauternes in general is a “short” pruning. It is not far off being a pruning ‘en gobelet’ ie for single bush vines, but the gobelet is positioned in a single line which is that of the row of vines in order to permit an efficient trellising of the vegetation.

Each short spur is composed of two eyes and the 4 or 5 arms of the vine making up the vine have been formed in order to make a fan, positioned in the row of the vine.

A short spur – Château Suduiraut

A short spur – Château Suduiraut

The pruning at Suduiraut is a “short” pruning, a “planned gobelet”

The pruning at Suduiraut is a “short” pruning, a “planned gobelet”

One can call this method of pruning a “planned gobelet”. Given the grape varieties in question (Majority Semillon and a little Sauvignon Blanc) this short pruning makes it possible to reduce the potential yield of each vine. This low yield is obligatory in order to have the earliest maturity possible. This element of early maturing is essential in order to enable the botrytis to install itself on the ripest grapes possible.

Bookmark and Share

To the Languedoc for the blending session for the 2009 wines of Mas Belles Eaux

After weeks of freezing temperatures in Bordeaux, it was a pleasure to enjoy more Southern temperatures: the difference between -6 and 12 degrees celcius is appreciable, and underlines the climatic differences between the two regions. Before the tasting we toured the vineyard: I have a special affection for Mas Belles Eaux. These photographs may give you some idea why.

We acquired the two vineyards of Sainte Hélène and Belles Eaux in 2002, and merged them together to form the property of Mas Belles Eaux. Since then transformative work has taken place in the vineyard, notably in the trellising, replanting, or regrafting of large parts of the property. However, some parcels needed no changing at all, and this magnificent plantation of old vine Carignan is an example.

Old Vine Carignan at Mas Belles Eaux

Old Vine Carignan at Mas Belles Eaux

These wonderful old vines, planted in the 1940s, planted in the heart of the noble terroirs of the property naturally produce a very low yield of superb wine, full of depth and character, which we use in the blend for the Sainte Hélène Grand Vin, but also bottle in small quantities as a Single Varietal Carignan under the Mas Belles Eaux label. I opened a bottle of the 07 at home on Sunday and was struck by how fresh and balanced it was, but also by its finesse, not a characteristic I would automatically have associated with the variety before I got to know it a little better.

Mourvèdre is another variety that I have enjoyed becoming more familiar at Mas Belles Eaux. Fortunately there were already several hectares planted, but the results have been so encouraging that we decided to graft some old vine Cinsault with Mourvèdre to increase the proportion of this noble variety in the vineyard.

Mas Belles Eaux - Grenache Noir on the right, just before pruning - Mourvèdre on the left

This parcel is at the summit of the Mas Belles Eaux slopes.

Here you see a parcel of Grenache Noir on the right, just before pruning, and on the left a parcel of Mourvèdre that has been grafted onto Cinsault, reasonably old vines, in this case planted in 1973. In the distance you can see the Black Mountain. This parcel is at the summit of the Mas Belles Eaux slopes.

As with the Carignan, we use Mourvèdre for the Sainte Hélène blend (and Les Coteaux) but also bottle a small amount as a single varietal under the Mas Belles Eaux label. In fact I opened a bottle of our 2008 Mourvèdre on Sunday at the same time as the Carignan, purely for the purposes of comparison, and it was fascinating to see the marked difference in style between the two. They were judged equally enjoyable – the levels in the bottles descended at almost exactly the same rate – but wholly different. This is an experiment I can only encourage you to make yourself, preferably on a regular basis.

Mas Belles Eaux - Grenache grafted onto Old Vine Cinsault

Grenache grafted onto Old Vine Cinsault

Here is a closer look at a recent grafting. In this case, Grenache grafted onto Old Vine Cinsault. We have had considerable success with grafting onto old vines here. This enables us to benefit from the age of the vines and their extensive root structure, but to change grape varieties when we feel appropriate.

Syrah is though, at the heart of the blends for both Sainte Hélène and Les Coteaux. Here are some of our finest Syrah, in the parcel known as la Cacarie.

Terroir of Mas Belles Eaux

The Terroir of Mas Belles Eaux

You can see something of the terroir of Mas Belles Eaux from this picture, deep beds of Villafranchien gravel mixed with ferruginous clay, which gives the soil its typical red colour, and which gives finesse and elegance to the Syrah planted here.

In fact the colour – and indeed the gravel – shows more clearly in the next picture, which is of some older vine Grenache, in the parcel we call Gil. The sun was just setting, which exaggerates the red colour a little, but it really is red.

Grenache Vines at the top of the Belles Eaux plateau

Grenache Vines at the top of the Mas Belles Eaux plateau

These photos should give some idea of why we decided to buy here. We spent over 18 months searching before we found Mas Belles Eaux : there is some serious terroir here, capable of producing great wines. There has been a steady progression in quality since we began work in the vineyard. Our aim is to make terroir driven wines here, that express the place they come from: either through a blend of Syrah, Grenache, Mourvèdre and Carignan, or sometimes from a single varietal bottling of any of these. There is something magical about the land here, and our aim is to express this in the wines of Mas Belles Eaux.

Bookmark and Share

Pruning at Petit-Village

On the eve of the Christmas period, the vineyards can seem bleak and cold, but this time of year has its own charm, and of course, the cycle of life in the vineyard continues. At Petit-Village this morning, where the pruning is under way. This is one of the toughest tasks in the vineyard, taking place as it does in the cold and damp of winter. Here is a view of one the merlot parcels at Petit-Village.

Pruning at Petit-Village

On the left you see young vine merlots that have not yet been pruned, on the right old vine merlot that have just been pruned in the Guyot Simple method.

 

A not yet pruned young vine

Here is a close up of a young merlot vine, just before pruning.

 

An already pruned old vine

And here is a close up of an old merlot vine that has just been pruned, though not yet tied up.

After a tour of the vineyard, we tasted the wines of 2009 in the Petit-Village tasting room. For the formal blending sessions of Petit-Village Stéphane Derenoncourt, our consultant will be with us with members of his team. But today it was Daniel Llose, Serge Ley, technical director of Petit-Village, and myself. It was a profoundly exciting tasting. A lot has happened at Petit-Village in recent years, including a major replanting of part of the vineyard, and a total reconstruction of the winery facilities. Stéphane Derenoncourt joined us as consultant in 2006, the new winery became operational in 2007, and the results have begun to show in the wines of the last few years.

The 2009 wines that we tasted this morning are simply outstanding, and may be the best Petit-Village we have ever made, with wonderful intensity of fruit, freshness, volume and harmony. We are looking forward to showing this wine in the spring tastings next year!

Here is a picture of Daniel LLose and me feeling cheerful in the Petit-Village tasting room.

Daniel LLose (à droite) et Christian Seely (à gauche) dans la salle de dégustation de Petit-Village

Next post will probably be in January. In the meantime I wish you a very Happy Christmas And New Year and I hope that you will open some great bottles with friends and family. 

Bookmark and Share

Nacional 2007 ?

“I did want to ask about 2007 nacional: what was the reason to do not bring it out as a nacional?’ asked me Albino Tuosto in response to the New Douro Tasting post. Herewith my answer :

We did not declare a Quinta do Noval Nacional 2007. This might seem strange as it was such a beautiful Vintage generally, but the Nacional is a strange phenomenon.

As you know, it is made from grapes grown on ungrafted vines in a small area at the heart of the Noval vineyard. This gives the wine a unique and distinctive personality: when it is great, as in years like 03, 00, 97, 96, 94, 63 it is quite extraordinary, one of the great wines of the world. But it is a wine that confirms something that is for me a deeply held belief, which is that a wine is great because of the quality of the grapes, the character of the year and because of the place they come from. These things are far more important than anything we may do either in the vineyard or in the winery.

We vinify the Nacional in the same way as the other grapes from the rest of the Quinta do Noval vineyard: foot treading in stone lagares, a simple if laborious procedure, and the result is always something very different for the Nacional wine compared with the wine from the rest of the Quinta. Nacional is what it is because of the grapes and where they come from, not because of anything clever that we do.

However, though it is always different, and with a distinctive personality, it does not necessarily follow the same rhythm as the rest of the vineyard. In 1996 for example, which was not a declared Vintage year for the rest of the Quinta do Noval vineyard, the Nacional was outstanding, and we decided to declare it. In 2007 on the other hand the Nacional just did not sing. It decided to be great in 1996; it decided not to be in 2007. It is just how it is. The decision not to declare the 07 Nacional was therefore a relatively easy one. I decided when I arrived at Noval in 1993 that we would never declare a Nacional that wasn’t great, something we have stuck to ever since. Of course, one can imagine the short term temptation to declare the Nacional 07 anyway – we would have been able to sell it! But we are custodians of the reputation of this magical wine, and long term that is what matters. So I am sorry, no Nacional 2007. But watch this space: every year is a new opportunity. We have had a good run of great Nacionals in recent years, and I am sure there will be more to come in the future.”

Bookmark and Share

Blending session at Pichon for the 2009

This is always an exciting time of the year. Although it is getting dark and cold, with winter drawing in, we have the fruits of the year’s sunshine with us in the form of the wines of the vintage. We start to taste the different lots at around this time, and will meet again several times before we decide on the final blend sometime in January or February. This morning we were tasting as usual all the different lots from the Pichon vineyard. 35 different lots of wine, all from distinct parcels of the vineyard with their individual personality. The challenge is to find the perfect blend for the Grand Vin of Pichon, at the same time ensuring that Les Tourelles will maintain its distinctive style.

Although our blending decisions are made on the basis of collective tasting, it is remarkable how each year certain parcels consistently make up the Grand Vin and certain others consistently are chosen for Les Tourelles.

Here is the Pichon tasting team: from left Alexandra Lebossé, Daniel LLose, Jean-René Matignon, Eric Boissenot, Jacques Boissenot, Christian Seely.

Blending session at Pichon for the 2009

As you can see we are feeling in a good mood about the 2009s, which are magnificent. At this early stage we can only make a first approach at the final blend, but the Pichon Grand Vin will undoubtedly be one of the great Pichons, showing already great purity and intensity of ripe fruit, and a lovely balance and freshness.

This is a more serious photograph showing Boissenot père et fils in action together with Daniel LLose.

Blending Session at Pichon for the 2009

2009 was great here in Bordeaux on both the left and right bank for the reds, but also in Sauternes. I will report in due course on early impressions at Petit-Village and at Suduiraut.

Bookmark and Share