I just came back from a quick promotional visit to Singapore, and it was a pleasure this morning to be walking in the vineyard of Château Pichon-Longueville Baron again, on a lovely sunny spring day. The vines have developed rapidly over the past week, and we are in the middle of epamprage. Here is a short sequence of photographs to show exactly what is involved.
Vine before epamprage. There is vegetation shooting from all over the vine, which needs tidying up.
Michaël begins the work of cleaning the vine. On the ground you see one or two shoots that have been cut. These shoots were not fruit bearing, and would only have taken the vine’s energy away from the fruit bearing buds, which only grow on the shoots of the previous year. The other buds from the older wood are generally non fruit bearing and are eliminated.
The work progresses. You can see in Michaël’s right hand his rather deadly looking tool, the serpette.
This is the phase of shaving the vine, making sure that the old wood is perfectly clear. Essentially, the shoots that come off the old vine will be non fruit bearing, and have to be eliminated. Try to imagine that this has to be done on every single vine at Pichon Baron, and you will begin to have an idea of the work that this represents. One person can normally do about a quarter of a hectare per day on Merlot vines, or about 2/3rds of a hectare per day for Cabernet-Sauvignon.
A little thinning out of the shoots on the left hand side of the vine.
Satisfaction. The vine has been thoroughly cleaned up. Scroll back to the first picture, to see it as it was. All shoots from the old wood have been eliminated, the fruit bearing shoots at both ends of the guyot double have been thinned out. The vine is now ready to concentrate its efforts on the fruit bearing shoots that remain. Because the clearing up, these will have maximum exposure to the sun, and also good aeration, which could be crucial in periods of humidity, when an un-tidied up vine might easily be subject to rot.
This is the kind of work that has to be done on every single vine, in order to make great grapes for Château Pichon-Longueville.
It is perfectly true that the great wines of Pichon Baron would not be possible without the great terroir that produces them. But sometimes one talks so much about the importance of terroir, that one does not give enough importance to these essential tasks, which require the dedication and the skill of the people who work in the vineyard, and without which the great wine of Pichon Baron would not be possible. When you raise a glass of Pichon, spare a thought for the work that made it possible.
Steve Tanzer has started a regular question and answer section on his Winophilia Web Page where he asks selected winemakers around the world to post up answers to his questions. Here is my reply to his first question. You can find the complete article with the replies of other winemakers by clicking here: http://www.winophilia.com/2010/03/25/requirement-1-for-drinking-pleasure-part-1/ It is well worth a look. There are some interesting replies.
Steve Tanzer: What is your single most important requirement in a bottle of wine you drink for pleasure?
Christian Seely, Quinta do Noval and Château Pichon Baron (Portugal and France). First of all, I have never drunk a wine for any other reason! If you want a one-word answer, then my answer would be “harmony.” To be a little more explicit, I would say that I am looking for freshness, balance, harmony, and drinkability. Drinkability might sound like a strange requirement, but there are wines that are impressive to taste, but which do not encourage you to drink more than a glass.
To go further, and perhaps to get a little closer to a clear answer to your question, I like wines that make me dream a little when I have them in the glass in front of me, wines that make me think of the place they come from: a Douro red with an aromatic nose that reminds me of the wild beauty of the Douro, for example, or a great Sauternes that can transport me to the vineyard of Suduiraut at harvest time.
So it has to be good, and it has to be authentic. I have to feel that I am not wasting my time with it. This can happen on any level. It has nothing to do with prestige or price. Once that has been decided, I am ready to sit back and give it all the time it needs.
Last week the world descended on Bordeaux to taste the 2009 vintage. This is one of the most hectic weeks of our year, with a constant stream of visitors throughout the day and usually a dinner every night, but it is one that we look forward to.
Although one can make an argument that there are more appropriate times in the life of a wine to make a judgement of its real intrinsic quality than the month of March after the harvest, the reality is that this is what everyone tries to do.
Judgements are made about the quality and style of the year, and about the relative performances of the individual properties. For us as producers it is a time of excitement and anguish. The result of all that we have been doing in the vineyard and the chai is held up to the scrutiny of the wine world. We of course have our own ideas about our wines, but we are probably too passionately engaged with what we are doing to give a truly objective judgement ourselves (although we try our best to do so). So it is down to our visitors to give us their verdict, whether they are journalists or members of the world wine trade. Will they confirm all that we believe to be true about the quality of our wines? Will they notice what we have been trying to do?
The place where we receive most visitors is the tasting room at Pichon. I spent time last week at Petit-Village as well, but a couple of days were spent at the Pichon tasting room. It is a fascinating and very enjoyable experience to taste our wines with different visitors throughout the day, and to hear what they have to say about the wines and the year. Some of course say nothing, usually the journalists. In this case, one receives the visit, one tries to gauge the reaction by the enigmatic facial expressions of the taster in question, and then one waits to read what they have to say. However, enough people have expressed themselves openly to confirm the general impression that 2009 is a great vintage, and the “buzz” about Pichon, Petit-Village, and Suduiraut has been highly positive. Now we must wait for the verdicts to roll in to give a composite picture of the wine world’s judgement of the vintage and of our wines.
For what it is worth, I love the 2009 vintage. I have tried to taste everywhere I could and I believe there are some very beautiful wines out there. The ones I like best are those that I consider to have captured the essence of the 2009 vintage at their properties. These wines have a lovely purity of fruit, intense concentration, but are marked above all by a harmony and balance, and an extraordinary elegance and silkiness of tannins, perfectly enrobed by the fruit, in spite of the very high level of tannins that are analytically in the wines. There are some that have pursued a more extractive route, and their wines are marked by more obvious tannins but also extreme concentration of fruit, and I think that 09 will be a year marked by stylistic differences between those who have pursued elegance and finesse and those who have gone down a more power driven route. But in general the wines are wonderful, and I think the opinion seems general that it is a great year for Bordeaux. So much attention is focussed on the amazing reds this year that it is easy to forget that 2009 was also a great year for Sauternes. The Suduiraut is one of my favourite wines ever from the property, with extraordinary richness and complexity, but marked, in the same was as the best red wines, by the wonderful balance and harmony and elegance of the year.
We received a group of distinguished journalists at Petit-Village for a group tasting of the UGC wines of St Emilion and Pomerol. One of the advantages of hosting such a tasting is the opportunity to talk to so many journalists during one visit, but the other is the opportunity it gives one to slip into the tasting room after they have gone and taste all the wines oneself. I tasted them all first with their labels showing, making copious and detailed tasting notes (purely for my own benefit), and then tasted them all again blind, making tasting notes again. I then tried to reconcile the two sets of tasting notes. If you have never done this kind of thing, I recommend it as a rather disconcerting exercise in humility! But it is fascinating to see the differences in perception in the two cases. Probably in an ideal world one would always taste twice, once blind and once not: there are obviously positive things to be said about both methods.
Naturally, while the world is concentrating its attention on the 2009s, life goes on in the vineyards and chais. I took these two photographs of the first buds of 2010 at Petit-Village while the 09s were being tasted. Spring is in the air, and it feels very good after what has been an unusually hard winter, not just in terms of the weather.
As so often at this time of the year in Hungary, it was very cold, with a lot of snow, but we were lucky to have some wonderful sunshine, which showed off the vineyard to great effect. Here is a photograph of the tasting team in the snow: I could not resist this photo opportunity, although naturally, the serious tasting and blending took place inside!
From left to right: Christian Seely; László Mészáros, MD of Disznókő; Andrea Hanyecz, Commercial Director of Disznókő; Zoltán Kovács, Technical Director of Disznókő; Aymeric de Gironde, Commercial Director of the AXA Millésimes properties, Daniel LLose, Technical Director at AXA Millésimes.
A fine Aszú wine should of course be served chilled, so we profited from the natural conditions. I can recommend this way of preparing your glass of Tokaji, and the thought occurred to me that this would be the perfect wine for a ski-ing holiday, a great deal better for you than a glass of hot red wine with a slice of orange in it.
The great historic vineyard region of Tokaj is one of the most romantic places in the world. The long and turbulent history of this region, marked as it has been by both glory and tragedy, would make a great book. For centuries recognised as one of the great wines of the world – the preferred wine of Voltaire, Frederic the Great, the Tsars of Russia, Louis XIV – Tokaj suffered enormously in the 20th century from war and politics. The re-emergence of the region began in the early 1990s, with the collapse of the communist system. We acquired the historic Disznókő vineyard in 1992, and set about replanting most of the vineyard, building a winery, and began the process of recreating a great Tokaji wine at Disznókő.
Here is another photograph, which shows the tasting team again, but with the Disznókő winery and vineyard in clear view, together with, in the background, what we like to believe to be the most beautiful tractor shed in the world.
None of these buildings existed when we acquired Disznókő. It has been an enormous pleasure and privilege for us to participate in the renaissance of one of the great vineyards of Tokaj, and also in so doing to participate in the renaissance of the entire region. My predecessor at AXA Millésimes, Jean-Michel Cazes, was one of the leading architects of this process, and also the driving force, together with Daniel LLose and the Disznókő team, behind everything that was done at Disznókő in the 1990s. Today the situation of Tokaj is transformed since the early 1990s. Several of the great historic properties have been restored to former glories, but also, and very importantly, a large number of enthusiastic and talented young winemakers have set up on their own in smaller properties to produce exciting wines that are on the way to making Tokaj once again one of the great wine producing regions of the world, and certainly one of the most dynamic places to work.
We were at Disznókő to blend the 2007 Aszú wines. The year had some points of resemblance with the 2000, very rich and ripe, with relatively low acidities. The resulting wines are enormously seductive already, the stylistic opposite of, for example, a year like 1999, which was also very rich but with high acidity and a very strong mineral backbone, for which it is necessary to wait as long as possible. Watch out for the 2007 Five Puttonyos Disznókő Aszú when it reaches the market in a year or two! We also produced a remarkable Eszencia in 2007.
It is characteristic of a region in the process of re-inventing itself that different actors are pursuing different paths. Some believe the future lies in the development of the dry wines, in particular of the noble Furmint grape; some are developing a late harvest style, a delicious compromise between the richness of the Aszú wines and the very dry and mineral character of the Furmint grape when it has no residual sugar. Personally I believe that the greatness of Tokaj resides principally in its Aszú wines, in particular in the five and six Puttonyos Aszús, magical wines, with a unique personality, complex, rich, fine and balanced, capable of ageing and developing for a century or more, but perfectly delicious when young. At Disznókő we produce a dry Furmint, a Late Harvest, and a range of Aszú wines, with a very limited production of Eszencia in some years, but I think it is fair to say that the Five and Six Puttonyos Aszú wines are the real focus of our activity. If you have not tried one of these wines yet, I recommend you to do so: they are among the very great wines of the world, available at what is for us still an unjustly low price!
Mel Jones asked a very good question about pruning, and I decided to post the answer in the blog. I consulted with Daniel LLose before replying, so that is the explanation for the unusually detailed technical information in this posting!
“How do you time and organise the pruning? Do you start at one side of a site in December and just work across to the other, then on to the next site or go variety by variety, old then new vines, or some other system. Also, is there any plot/variety that you prune later, to postpone budburst, or to make anything else happen or not. I suppose I’m asking for Pichon, but would be interested to hear about Suduiraut as well.”
The purpose of pruning a vine every year is multiple: to regulate the vine vigour, to control the vegetative state and to ensure a perfect sanitary state.
The basic principle of pruning rests on the fact that the fructiferous buds (ie the shoot that will grow from this eye will bear fruits) are positioned on wood from the preceding year. Pruning has therefore the aim of remodeling a vine plant in order to keep a certain length of wood (in one or two canes) on which there will be a clearly defined number of buds (according to the criteria laid down for production volumes). Each bud will give a new branch which will bear one or two fruits according to the grape variety.
The pruning of the vine can only take place once the sap is descending, so that the plant is going into hibernation. In general, we consider that it is possible to prune when the leaves have fallen. It is also easy and more convenient to prune without leaves. The pruning begins here in mid-November and can last throughout the winter. One can prune until the end of March. But at this time, the plant is beginning its activity again, the sap is therefore in rising mode, and they say in the vineyard that “the vine is crying” since the sap can drip from the wood cut during pruning. Some properties organise pruning by teams in order to advance more quickly block by block.
At Pichon for example we practice pruning by “prix-faits”. Each vigneron has the same parcels to prune each year: it is the group of these parcels that is known as a “prix-fait”. The notion of “prix-fait” implies therefore a separation of the vineyard into individual parcels, both in terms of prix-faits and in terms of vignerons. The fact that each vigneron takes care of the same parcels every year is a big qualitative advantage. Each individual vine is thus always pruned by the same person who can from one year to the next direct the development of the vine and better preserve its longevity if he respects the rules of good pruning.
The concept of “prix-fait” indicates also a method of remuneration: the vignerons are paid by the “prix-fait”, that is to say x euros per thousand vines pruned. The prix-fait of a vigneron is carefully made up of a blend of different parcels so that each vigneron has a judicious and balanced mixture between the different grape varieties (at Pichon Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Cabernet Franc) and the differing vigours of the parcels, this vigour being chiefly in relation to the age of the parcel: the older the parcel becomes, the lower will its vigour be.
A vigneron can prune between 800 and 1000 vines per day. During a pruning campaign, the vignerons of Pichon have on average 50,000 vines to prune. But the work of pruning itself is not the only work that the vigneron has to do during this period. It is also necessary to prepare the vine so that it is ready for the next vegetative cycle. Pruning in Guyot Double is a method that makes trellising obligatory.
When a vigneron has finished pruning a parcel he must restore to good condition the structure that supports the vine, that is to say the posts and the supporting wires. This work is undertaken before the “pliage” which means tying down the canes. The ‘pliage’ consists of attaching the two canes of a vine plant, to the supporting wire, so that the shoots that sprout from the buds of this cane grow according to the plan of the vegetation). This dimension of the “prix-fait” enables the vigneron to prune all his parcels within the time available.
The pruning work is organized in a methodical way. The pruning plan parcel by parcel is made according to the grape varieties but also according to the precociousness of the terroirs. In general the more precocious terroirs are pruned last so that the vine does not start its vegetative cycle too early: this can limit the effects of frost at the beginning of Spring. In fact a late pruning will retard the budburst of the vine (the phase during which the buds begin to open). The young vines (of less than 5/6 years) will always be pruned last as they always tend to start their vegetative cycle earlier than older vines. By pruning them last, one also retards the beginning of the vegetative cycle.
It is not the case at Pichon since the terroirs are such that they represent very few risks of Spring frosts, but there is also a way of diminishing that risk by pruning in two phases. Pruning in guyot double is a “long” pruning method: the canes of wood (called in the Médoc “astes”) have a length of about 50 cm on which will remain at the pruning only 4 or 5 buds. The cane is kept longer in order to enable it to be attached to the supporting wire (the “attachage”). The useless buds at the end of the wood are therefore removed: the cane of wood is debudded on a third of its length.
To avoid risks of frost in very cold terroirs, the cane is maintained straight without being attached. In this position, the terminal buds will open more quickly and thus delay the opening of the buds at the base of the cane. If there is a spring frost, in this way only the terminal buds will be affected since the buds which are important for the production of grapes will not be sufficiently open. It is then only necessary to prune the vine a second time to remove the terminal buds and to attach the cane to the supporting wire.
In relation to the pruning at Château Suduiraut for example the principles are exactly the same, the important difference being that the pruning method is totally different. The pruning at Pichon is “long” with two canes of wood with 4 or 5 short spurs with two eyes enabling the reshaping of the plant in the following year.
The pruning at Suduiraut in particular and in Sauternes in general is a “short” pruning. It is not far off being a pruning ‘en gobelet’ ie for single bush vines, but the gobelet is positioned in a single line which is that of the row of vines in order to permit an efficient trellising of the vegetation.
Each short spur is composed of two eyes and the 4 or 5 arms of the vine making up the vine have been formed in order to make a fan, positioned in the row of the vine.
One can call this method of pruning a “planned gobelet”. Given the grape varieties in question (Majority Semillon and a little Sauvignon Blanc) this short pruning makes it possible to reduce the potential yield of each vine. This low yield is obligatory in order to have the earliest maturity possible. This element of early maturing is essential in order to enable the botrytis to install itself on the ripest grapes possible.